Public Forum Doctrine
A. Categories of Public Forums
1) Traditional or Quintessential Public Forums
2) Designated Public Forums
3) Nonpublic Forums
B. Traditional or Quintessential Public Forums
1) Examples – Streets and Parks
(places that have been made available for expression since time
2) Guaranteed Access Rights
(the public has guaranteed rights of access to such places and,
therefore, the government cannot close off this access completely)
3) Content Neutral Time, Place, and Manner Regulations (the government
can regulate access to the streets and parks by enacting time, place,
and manner regulations. To be constitutional such regulations
must be content-neutral, must be narrowly tailored to accomplish an
important governmental interest, and must leave open ample alternative
avenues for expression.)
4) Content-Based Regulations Evaluated Under Strict Scrutiny Test (the
government can regulate access to the streets and parks based on the
content of the regulated speech, but only if it has selected a narrowly
tailored, least restrictive method of achieving a compelling
C. Designated Public Forums
1) This category consists of government property that the government
has intentionally opened up for the purpose of either all or certain
kinds of First Amendment activities by members of the public or by a
particular segment of the public such as students in a designated forum
created by the school they attend.
2) The key here is that the government’s creation of a designated
public forum is a voluntary act. Moreover, the creation of a
designated forum is not permanent. The government is free to
eliminate forums that it voluntarily creates.
3) The government can regulate access to designated public forums in
the same manner as traditional public forums by adopting reasonable
time, place and manner regulations and by adopting content-based
restrictions that satisfy strict scrutiny.
4) Designated public forums may be unlimited or limited public
forums. Most such voluntary forums are limited in some way and
are referred to as limited public forums.
5) The government can limit a designated forum by speaker identity,
subject matter, time, etc. This means that the government
property is a designated forum as to some speakers (those within the
described limits) and a nonpublic forum as to other speakers (those
outside the described limits).
D. How to Identify a Designated Public Forum
1) To identify whether property qualifies as a designated public forum,
courts principally examine the policy and practice of the government
(to determine if it intended to designate a place as a public forum);
2) Courts also look at the nature of the property and its compatibility
with expressive activity (to discern the government’s intent);
3) A court will not determine that government property to which a
speaker seeks access is a designated public forum solely because the
government has allowed selective access to the forum (e.g., by allowing
it to be used by occasional speakers); and
4) Designated public forums may be limited and selective access may
only be allowed for those who fall within the limits of the forum.
E. Nonpublic Forums
1) Nonpublic forum is the residual category for government property
that is neither a traditional nor a designated public forum.
2) Nonpublic forums can be regulated by the use of reasonable
regulations that do not discriminate on the basis of viewpoint. Since
it is easier for the government to satisfy this standard than it
is to satisfy the standards that apply to traditional and designated
public forums, the government will try and classify government property
as a nonpublic forum whenever possible.